When India became independent from the British Empire in 1947, the nizam of Hyderabad did not want to merge with the Indian Union and wanted to remain independent. The Government of India annexed Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948 after a military operation called Operation Polo. It appointed a civil servant, M. K. Vellodi, as first chief minister of Hyderabad State on 26 January 1950. He administered the state with the help of English-educated bureaucrats from the Madras and Bombay states, who were familiar with British systems of administration unlike the bureaucrats of Hyderabad state who used a completely different administrative system. The official language of the state was switched from Urdu to English.
In 1952, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected chief minister of the Hyderabad State in its first democratic election. During this time, there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to send the Madras state bureaucrats back and implement a rule by the natives (mulkis) of Hyderabad.
The Telangana Rebellion was a peasant revolt supported by the communists. It originated in the Telangana regions of the Hyderabad state between 1946 and 1951, led by the Communist Party of India (CPI).
The revolt began in the Nalgonda district against the feudal lords of Reddy and Velama castes. It quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar districts. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against the local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs) and later against the nizam Osman Ali Khan. The violent phase of the movement ended after the Government of India's Operation polo. Starting in 1951, the CPI shifted to a more moderate strategy of seeking to bring communism to India within the framework of Indian democracy.
In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was appointed to form states on a linguistic basis. An agreement was reached between Telangana leaders and Andhra leaders on 20 February 1956 to merge Telangana and Andhra with promises to safeguard Telangana's interests. After reorganisation in 1956, the region of Telangana was merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.
Following this Gentlemen's agreement, the central government established the unified state of Andhra Pradesh on 1 November 1956. G.O 553 of 1959 from the united Andhra Pradesh state moved two revenue divisions of Bhadrachalam and Aswaraopeta from East Godavari to Khammam for administrative convenience.
There have been several movements to revoke the merger of Telangana and Andhra, major ones occurring in 1969, 1972, and 2009. The movement for a new state of Telangana gained momentum over the decades. On 9 December 2009 the Government of India announced the process of formation of the Telangana state. Violent protests led by people in the Coastal Andhra and Rayalseema regions occurred immediately after the announcement, and the decision was put on hold on 23 December 2009.
The movement continued in Hyderabad and other districts of Telangana. There have been hundreds of claimed suicides, strikes, protests and disturbances to public life demanding separate statehood.
On 30 July 2013, the Congress Working Committee unanimously passed a resolution to recommend the formation of a separate Telangana state. After various stages the bill was placed in the Parliament in February 2014. In February 2014, Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the Parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh. The bill received the assent of the President and published in the Gazette on 1 March 2014.
The state of Telangana was officially formed on 2 June 2014. Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was elected as the first chief minister of Telangana, following elections in which the Telangana Rashtra Samiti party secured majority. Hyderabad will remain as the joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for a period of 10 years.
Telangana is situated on the Deccan Plateau, in the central stretch of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula. It covers 114,840 square kilometres (44,340 sq mi). The region is drained by two major rivers, with about 79% of the Godavari River catchment area and about 69% of the Krishna River catchment area, but most of the land is arid. Telangana is also drained by several minor rivers such as the Bhima, the Manjira and the Musi.
At 965 m Doli Gutta is possibly the highest mountain peak in the state of Telangana since Chintoor and Vararamachandrapuram mandals of Khammam district
The annual rainfall is between 900 to 1500 mm in northern Telangana and 700 to 900 mm in southern Telangana, from the southwest monsoons. Various soil types abound, including chalkas, red sandy soils, dubbas, deep red loamy soils, and very deep black cotton soils that facilitate planting mangoes, oranges and flowers.
Telangana is a semi-arid area and has a predominantly hot and dry climate. Summers start in March, and peak in May with average high temperatures in the 42 °C (108 °F) range. The monsoon arrives in June and lasts until September with about 755 mm (29.7 inches) of precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until early February with little humidity and average temperatures in the 22–23 °C (72–73 °F) range.
The Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests ecoregion covers much of the state, including Hyderabad. The characteristic vegetation is woodlands of Hardwickia binata and Albizia amara. Over 80% of the original forest cover has been cleared for agriculture, timber harvesting, or cattle grazing, but large blocks of forest can be found in Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve and elsewhere. The more humid Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests cover the Eastern Ghats in the eastern part of the state.
Telangana has three National Parks: Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park in Hyderabad district, and Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park and Mrugavani National Park in Ranga Reddy district.
Wildlife Sanctuaries in Telangana include Eturunagaram Wildlife Sanctuary and Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary in Warangal District, Kawal Tiger Reserve and Pranahita Wildlife Sanctuary in Adilabad district, Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary in Khammam district, Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak district, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve in Nalgonda and Mahbubnagar districts, Pocharam Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak and Nizamabad districts, Shivaram Wildlife Sanctuary in Karimnagar district.
Sacred groves are small areas of forest preserved by local people. Sacred groves provide sanctuary to the local flora and fauna. Some are included within other protected areas, like Kadalivanam in Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve, but most stand alone. There are 65 sacred groves Telangana – two in Adilabad district, thirteen in Hyderabad district, four in Karimnagar district, four in Khammam district, nine in Mahbubnagar district, four in Medak district, nine in Nalgonda district, ten in Ranga Reddy district, and three in Warangal district.
Telangana is governed through a parliamentary system of representative democracy, a feature the state shares with other Indian states. Universal suffrage is granted to residents. There are three branches of government.
1. Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister, although the titular head of government is the Governor. The Governor is the head of state appointed by the President of India. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the Governor and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly.
2. The legislature, the Telangana Legislative Assembly and the Telangana Legislative Council, consists of elected members and special office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker that are elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker in the Speaker's absence. The Assembly is bicameral with 119 Members of the Legislative Assembly and 40 Member of the Legislative Council. Terms of office run for 5 years, unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term. The Legislative Council is a permanent body with one-third members retiring every two years.
3. The judiciary is composed of the High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad and a system of lower courts.
Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats, for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs. The state contributes seats to Lok Sabha.
The main players in the regional politics are the Telangana Rashtra Samithi, Telugu Desam Party and Indian National Congress. Following the Telangana Legislative Assembly Election in 2014, the Telangana Rashtra Samithi under Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Raowas elected to power.
According to the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme 2009–10, There are 9 backward districts (all except Hyderabad) from Telangana and the rest are from other regions.
The religious makeup of Telangana is 86% Hindu, 12.4% Muslim, and 1.4% Christian, and 0.4% others.
About 77% of the population of Telangana speak Telugu, 12% speak Urdu, and 13% speak other languages. Before 1948, Urdu was the official language of Hyderabad State, and due to a lack of Telugu-language educational institutions, Urdu was the language of the educated elite of Telangana. After 1948, once Hyderabad State joined the new Republic of India, Telugu became the language of government, and as Telugu was introduced as the medium of instruction in schools and colleges, the use of Urdu among non-Muslims decreased.
According to the 2011 census, Telangana's literacy rate is 67.22%. Male literacy and female literacy are 75.6% and 58.77% respectively. Hyderabad district leading with 80.96% and Mahabubnagar district at the bottom with 56.06%.
The Economy of Telangana is mainly driven by agriculture. Two important rivers of India, the Godavari and Krishna, flow through the state, providing irrigation. Farmers in Telangana mainly depend on rain-fed water sources for irrigation. Rice is the major food crop. Other important crops are cotton, sugar cane, mango and tobacco are the local crops. Recently, crops used forvegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projectsand Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the world's highest masonry dam.
The state has also started to focus on the fields of information technology and biotechnology. Telangana is one of top IT exporting states of India. There are 68 Special Economic Zones in the state.
Telangana is a mineral-rich state, with coal reserves at Singareni Colleries.
Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state. Other important crops are maize, tobacco, mango, cotton and sugar cane. Agriculture has been the chief source of income for the state's economy. Important rivers of India, the Godavari, Krishna flow through the state, providing irrigation. Apart from major rivers, there are small rivers as Tunga Bhadra, Bima, Dindi, Kinnerasani, Manjeera, Manair, Penganga, Pranahitha, peddavagu and Taliperu.There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projectsand Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the world's highest masonry dam.
Agri Export Zones for the following produce are proposed at the places mentioned against them:
• Gherkins – Mahabubnagar, Rangareddy, Medak, Karimnagar, Warangal
• Mangoes and grapes - Hyderabad, Rangareddy, Medak, Mahabubnagar
Several major manufacturing and services industries are in operation mainly around Hyderabad. Automobiles and auto components industry, spices, mines and minerals, textiles and apparels, pharmaceutical, horticulture, poultry farming are the main industries in Telangana. In terms of services, Hyderabad is usually nicknamed as Cyberabad due to its information technology foray and location of major software industries in the city. Prior to secession, it contributed 15% to India's and 98% to Andhra Pradesh's exports in IT and ITES sectors last 2013 With Hyderabad as in the front line of Telangana's aims to promote information technology in India, the city boasts the HITEC City as its premier hub.
The state government is in the process of developing Industrial Parks at different places, for specific groups of industries. The existing parks are Software Park at Hyderabad, HITEC City for software units, Apparel Park at Gundlapochampalli, Export Promotion Park at Pashamylaram, Bio-technology park at Turkapally.
Hyderabad is also a major site for healthcare related industries including hospitals and pharmaceutical organizations such as Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Apollo Hospitals, and Dr. Reddy's Laboratories. In addition, Hyderabad based healthcare non-profits include the Indian Heart Association, a cardiovascular disease NGO.
The state is well connected with other states by means of road, rail and airways.
The Telangana State Road Transport Corporation (TSRTC) is the major public transport corporation that connects all the cities and villages. Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station (M.G.B.S) in Hyderabad is one of the largest bus stand in Asia. Jubilee Bus Station in Secunderabad serves intercity bus services. Asia's biggest Inter City Bus Terminal (ICBT) is being built in Miyapur (Hyderabad), which would house nearly 200 bus bays and for parking nearly 1,000 buses.
The history of railways in this region dates back to the time of nizam of Hyderabad in 1874. It operates under the auspices of the South Central Railway founded in 1966. The landmark building Rail Nilayam in Secunderabad is the Zonal Headquarter office of South Central Railway. Secunderabad and Hyderabad are the main divisions of South Central Railway that fall in the state.
Rajiv Gandhi International Airport at Shamshabad is an international airport serving the city of Hyderabad. It is the largest airport in the state and one of the busiest airports in the country. The government has plans to upgrade Warangal Airport, Nizamabad Airport and Ramagundam Airport It also plans to construct airports in Karimnagar and Kothagudem. Warangal has a domestic airport in Mamunooru which was established in the year 1930 during Nizam period. All the exports and imports of Azam Jahi Mills, Warangal were done through the Warangal Airport.
Telangana culture combines cultural customs from Persian traditions, embedded during rule of the region by the Moghuls, Qutub Shahis and Nizams, with prominent and predominantly south Indian traditions and customs. The State has a rich tradition in classical music, painting and folk arts such as Burra katha, shadow puppet show, and perini Shiva Tandavam, Gusadi Dance, Kolatam.
Charminar, Golconda Fort, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Chowmahalla Palace, Falaknuma Palace, Birla Mandir and Bhongir Fort, Warangal Fort are some of the monuments in and around Hyderabad.
• Bhadrachalam Temple is a temple to Lord Rama in the town of Bhadrachalam in Khammam district.
• Gnana Saraswati Temple is a temple to Saraswati goddess in the town of Basar in Adilabad district.
• Badapahad dargah is one of the oldest Muslim pilgrim centers, built in the memory of Hazrat Syed Hussaini, built on top of a hillock, located at a distance of 38 km from Nizamabad.
• Jogulamba temple, Alampur (also known as Dakshina Kashi or Navabrahmeshwara Theertha) - a famous temple located in Mahabub nagar Dist. Jogulamba (also known as Yogulamba/Yogamba) is one of the eighteen Shakti peethas)
• Yadagirigutta Temple - a famous temple located in Nalgonda District, only 46 km from Hyderabad.
• Keesaragutta Ramalingeshwara Swamy temple is very famous. Shivratri is very well celebrated every year.
• Pillalamarri, an 800-year-old banyan tree located in Mahabubnagar.
• Ramappa Temple with unbelievable architecture is located near Mulugu which is 70 km away from Warangal
• Vemulawada - Sri Raja Rajeswara Swami temple is a very famous temple also called as Dakhshina (South) Kasi. This temple was built by Chalukya kings between the 750 AD and 973 AD This town is very busy and visited by devotees from all over the state for the Shivratri festival every year. There are few other very old and historic temples in the town of Vemulawada, Karimnagar District.
• Warangal - The Thousand Pillar Temple, built by the Kakatiya dynasty, is one of the oldest temples of South India.
Other religious places include, Medak Cathedral at Medak, Buddhist centres at Nelakondapalli, Dhulikatta Phanigiri and Kolanpaka.
Kuntala Waterfall located in Kuntala, Adilabad district, at 45 metres (148 ft), is the biggest in the state.
Bogatha Waterfall is waterfall located in Koyaveerapuram G, Wazeedu Mandal, Khammam district, Telangana. It is located 120 Km from Bhadrachalam, 140 km away from Warangal and 329Km from Hyderabad.
Savatula Gundam Waterfalls are one of the many waterfalls located in Adilabad district, Telangana, India. They are located 30 kilometres (19 mi) from Asifabad and 350 kilometres (220 mi) from Hyderabad, the state capital.