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ABOUT ANDHRA STATE & ANDHRA PRADESH

Andhra State

Andhra State Andhra was a state in India created on October 1, 1953, from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State The state was made up of two distinct cultural regions – Rayala-Seema and Coastal-Andhra. The combined region was commonly called Seemandhra or Seema-Andhra.

On November 1, 1956, the Telangana region (Hyderabad State) was merged with it to form the united Telugu-speaking State of Andhra Pradesh. When the present Andhra Pradesh State was created, some majority Telugu-speaking areas (e.g. parts of Kolar district and Bellary district) were included in Karnataka State and Gadwal and Alampurtaluks were included in Mahbubnagar district of Hyderabad Telangana region in Andhra Pradesh.[2] Historically, Gadwal and Alampur taluks were not part of Telangana. Telangana gained these two taluks being part of Andhra Pradesh when Rayalaseema lost its area to Karnataka. The States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) recommended creation of Telangana State before merging with Andhra State after taking public opinion in the scheduled elections of 1961.

On 2 June 2014, Telangana State was separated back out of Andhra Pradesh. Now the residual Andhra Pradesh State has approximately the same borders as the old Andhra State of 1956.The residual Andhra Pradesh has lost bhadrachalam revenue division which was part of Andhra State before 1956.

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Creation of Andhra State

In an effort to protect the interests of the Telugu people of Madras State, Potti Sreeramulu attempted to force the Madras state government to listen to public demands for the separation of Telugu-speaking districts (Rayalaseema and Coastal Andhra) from Madras State to form Andhra State. He went on a lengthy fast, and only stopped when Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehrupromised to form Andhra State. However, there was no movement on the issue for a long time. He started fasting again for attaining statehood for Andhra in Maharshi Bulusu Sambamurti's house in Madras on 19 October 1952. It started off without fanfare but steadily caught people's attention despite the disavowal of the fast by the Andhra INC committee.

The government of the day, however, did not make a clear statement about the formation of a new state, despite several strikes and demonstrations by Telugu people. On the midnight of 15 December (i.e. early 16 December 1952), Sreeramulu died trying to achieve his objective at House No. 126, Royapethah High Road, Mylapore, Madras State; the house has been preserved as a monument by the state government.

In his death procession, people shouted slogans praising his sacrifice. When the procession reached Mount Road, thousands of people joined and raised slogans hailing Sreeramulu. Later, they went into a frenzy and resorted to destruction of public property. The news spread like wildfire and created an uproar among the people in far off places like Chirala,Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Rajahmundry, Eluru, Bhimavaram, Guntur, Tenali, Ongole and Nellore. Seven people were killed in clashes with police in Anakapalle and Vijayawada. The popular agitation continued for three to four days disrupting normal life in Madras and Andhra regions. On 19 December 1952, the Prime Minister of the country Jawaharlal Nehru made an announcement about formation of a separate state for the Telugu-speaking people of Madras State. The central government appointed K. N. Wanchoo, Chief Justice of the Rajasthan High Court,[4] to look into issues related to formation of Andhra State. Parliament passed the Andhra State Act in September 1953.

On October 1, 1953, 11 districts in the Telugu-speaking portion of Madras State became the new Andhra State with Kurnool as the capital. Tanguturi Prakasam Pantulu (also known as Andhra Kesari – "The Lion of Andhra") became the first Chief Minister of the new state.

Formation of this first "linguistic state" paved the way to creation of more and provided an opportunity for these states to develop independently, linguistically and economically, each of them having a state to support.

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Districts of Andhra State

Uttarandhra

• Srikakulam

• Vizianagaram

• Visakhapatnam

Coastal Andhra region

• East Godavari

• West Godavari

• Krishna

• Guntur

• Prakasam

• Nellore

Rayalaseema region

• Chittoor

• Kadapa

• Anantapur

• Kurnool

Note :

1. Vizianagaram district was created out of parts of Visakhapatnam district and Srikakulam district in 1979.

2. Prakasam district was created out of parts of Guntur district, Nellore district and Kurnool district in 1970.

Bhadrachalam and Nuguru Venkatapuram taluks of East Godavari district (part of coastal Andhra Pradesh), which are on the other side of the river Godavari, were merged into Khammam district on grounds of geographical contiguity and administrative viability. Earlier,Aswaraopeta was also part of West Godavari district and was added to Khammam district in 1959. Similarly, Munagala mandal was added to Nalgonda district and removed from Krishna district in 1959.

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Formation of Andhra Pradesh

On 1 November 1956 Andhra State and the Telangana region of Hyderabad State were merged to form the united Telugu-speaking State of Andhra Pradesh. Non-Telugu-speaking parts of Hyderabad State were merged with Maharashtra State and Karnataka State.

After reorganization in 1956, regions of the state west of the red and blue lines merged with Bombay and Mysore States, respectively, and the rest of the state (Telangana) was merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh State.

SRC (Fazal Ali Commission) :

Paragraph 382 of the SRC report dated 30 September 1955 said, "Opinion in Andhra is overwhelmingly in favour of the larger unit, public opinion in Telangana has still to crystallize itself. Important leaders of public opinion in Andhra themselves seem to appreciate that the unification of Telangana with Andhra, though desirable, should be based on a voluntary and willing association of the people and that it is primarily for the people of Telangana to take a decision about their future".

While the Fazal Ali commission emphasizes on the necessity and benefits Visalandhra, the report suggests that the process of merging may only be done after 5 years. In Paragraph 386, it states, "...for the present the Telangana area is to constitute into a separate State, which may be known as Hyderabad State with provision for its unification with Andhra after the general elections likely to be held in or about 1961, if by two thirds majority the legislature of the residency Hyderabad State expresses itself in favor of the such unification.”

Paragraph 387 goes on to say that the advantage of this arrangement will be that while the objective of the unification of the Andhras will neither be blurred nor impeded during a period of five or six years, the two governments may have stabilized their administrative machinery and, if possible, also reviewed their land revenue systems etc., the object in view being the attainment of uniformity. The intervening period may incidentally provide an opportunity for allaying apprehensions and achieving the consensus of opinion necessary for a real union between the two States.

From the content of Paragraph 387, the commission's main objective was to attain uniformity by achieving adequate administrative machinery and proper land review systems in the recently formed Andhra State and the new State of Hyderabad being formed and this duration could also be incidentally utilised for gaining consensus opinion for merger of the two states. In line with SRC opinion, the elected leaders of both states decided for immediate merger by achieving consensus by two thirds majority strength in both assemblies of these states.

The Hyderabad chief minister, in his letter to the INC president, said Communist parties supported the merger for their political calculations. The Hyderabad PCC chief said the overwhelming majority of INC party members opposed the merger, that Communists were elected in special circumstances in 1951, that Visalandhra was not a political issue in 1951, and that the Assembly does not reflect the people's view on the issue. He also said 80% of INC delegates who were elected in 1955 opposed the merger. The government had to provide additional security for Communist leaders who supported the Visalandhra.

In the Hyderabad Assembly, on 3 December 1955, 147 of 174 MLAs expressed their view. 103 (including Marathi and Kannada MLAs) supported the merger, 16 were neutral, and 29 opposed it. Among Telangana MLAs, 59 supported the merger and 25 opposed it. Out of 94 Telangana MLAs in the assembly, 36 were Communists (PDF), 40 were INC, 11 were Socialist party (SP), and 9 were independents. Voting did not take place on the resolution because Telangana proponents insisted on including the phrase "As per the wishes of people" in the resolution.

To convince the leadership of Telangana to join the new state, an agreement was reached between the leaders of both sides. This came to be known as the Gentlemen's agreement. The agreement allowed the formation of the State of Andhra Pradesh in 1956, against the SRC's recommendations of waiting until 1961 to get the approval of 2/3 of Telangana State assembly after the 2 cycles of elections in Telangana State.

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Telangana and 1972 Jai Andhra movements

The Telangana movement was started in 1969, demanding proper implementation of the Gentlemen's agreement, particularly themulki rules. When the Supreme Court upheld the discriminatory mulki rules applicable among the people of a state, it spawned the 1972 Jai Andhra movement. This was a public agitation demanding a separate Andhra State. The movement dissipated after the central government repealed the mulki rules and introduced a new six point formula.

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Creation of Telangana State

On 2 June 2014, Telangana State was separated back out of Andhra Pradesh. The residual Andhra Pradesh has lost bhadrachalam revenue division which was part of Andhra State before 1956.

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Present Andhra Pradesh

The Present Andhra Pradesh state is the eighth largest state in India covering an area of 160,205 km2 (61,855 sq mi). As per 2011 census of India, the state is tenth largest by population with 49,386,799 inhabitants. On 2 June 2014, the north-western portion of the state was bifurcated to form a new state of Telangana. In accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014,Hyderabad will remain the de jure capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding 10 years. The new river-front proposed capital in Guntur district is Amaravati, which is under the jurisdiction of APCRDA. Economically, the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of Andhra Pradesh at today's prices stood at₹2359.3 billion (US$36 billion) and the Gross State Domestic Product at the prices for the 2013 financial year were ₹4193.91 billion (US$63 billion). The average income of the state rose 62.6% from ₹25,959 (US$390) (2004–05) to ₹42,186 (US$640) (2012-13).

The state has a coastline of 974 km (605 mi), the second longest among all the states ofIndia after Gujarat. It is bordered by Telangana in the north-west, Chhattisgarh in the north, Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south and the water body of Bay of Bengal in the east. A small enclave of 30 km2 (12 sq mi) of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta to the northeast of the state.

There are two regions in the state namely Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema. These two regions comprise 13 districts, with 9 in Coastal Andhra and 4 in Rayalaseema. Visakhapatnam is the largest city and a commercial hub of the state with a GDP of $26 billion followed by Vijayawada with a GDP of $3 billion as of 2010, and is expected to increase to $17 billion by 2025. There are a total of 28 cities with a population of 100,000 and above in the state at the 2011 Census, while Visakhapatnam and Vijayawada are the two million-plus cities.

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Geography

Geographically, Andhra Pradesh is bestowed with two mighty river systems of Krishna and Godavari. Its varied topography ranging from the hills of Eastern Ghats and Nallamallas to the shores of Bay of Bengal supports varied ecotypes, rich diversity of flora and fauna. The state has two regions Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema. The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains. The coastal plains are for the most part of delta regions formed by the Godavari, Krishna, and Penna rivers. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and individual sections have local names. The Eastern Ghats are a major dividing line in the state's geography. The Kadapa Basin formed by two arching branches of the Eastern Ghats is a mineral-rich area. The Ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. Most of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use. The Rayalaseema region has semi-arid conditions. Lambasingi (or Lammasingi), a village in the Chintapalli Mandal of Visakhapatnam district is situated at 1000 meters above the sea level. It is the only place in South India which has snowfall and is also nicknamed as Kashmir of Andhra Pradesh. Throughout the year the temperature here ranges from 0 °C to 10 °C.

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Natural vegetation

Andhra Pradesh Forest Department deals with protection, conservation and management of forests. The total forest cover of the state after the bifurcation is left with an area of 22,862 km2. The forest in the state can be broadly divided into four major biotic provinces. They are:

1. Deccan Plateau

2. Central Plateau

3. Eastern Highland

4. East Coastal Plains

Eastern Ghats region is home to dense tropical forests, while the vegetation becomes sparse as the Ghats give way to the Deccan Plateau, where shrub vegetation is more common. These Ghats have rich biological diversity with a wide variety of plants, birds and lesser forms of animal life. The vegetation found in the state is largely of dry deciduous types with a mixture of teak,Terminalia, Dalbergia, Pterocarpus, Anogeissus, etc. The state possesses some rare and endemic plants like Cycas beddomei, Pterocarpus santalinus, Terminalia pallida, Syzygium alternifolium, Shorea talura, Shorea tumburgia, Psilotum nudum, etc.

The diversity of fauna includes tigers, panthers, hyenas, black bucks, cheetals, sambars, sea turtles and a number of birds and reptiles. The estuaries of river Godavari and Krishna support rich mangrove forests with fishing cats and otters as keystone species.

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Climate

The climate of Andhra Pradesh varies considerably, depending on the geographical region. Monsoons play a major role in determining the climate of the state. Summers last from March to June. In the coastal plain, the summer temperatures are generally higher than the rest of the state, with temperature ranging between 20 °C and 41 °C.

July to September is the season for tropical rains in Andhra Pradesh. The state receives heavy rainfall from the southwest monsoon during these months. About one third of the total rainfall in Andhra Pradesh is brought by the northeast monsoon. October and November see low-pressure systems and tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal which, along with the northeast monsoon, bring rains to the southern and coastal regions of the state. November, December, January, and February are the winter months in Andhra Pradesh. Since the state has a long coastal belt the winters are not very cold. The range of winter temperature is generally 12 °C to 30 °C.

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Demographics

As of 2011 Census of India, the state had a population of 49,386,799 with a population density of 308/km2 (800/sq mi). The total population constitute 70.4% of rural population with 34,776,389 inhabitants and 29.6% of urban population with 14,610,410 inhabitants. Children in the age group of 0–6 years are 5,222,384, constituting 10.6% of the total population, among them 2,686,453 are boys and 2,535,931 are girls. Visakhapatnam district has the largest urban population of 47.5% and Srikakulam district with 83.8%, has the largest rural population, among others districts in the state. The overall population of the state comprises 17.1% of Scheduled Caste and 5.3% of Scheduled Tribe population.

There are 24,738,068 male and 24,648,731 female citizens—a sex ratio of 996 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 926 per 1000. The literacy rate of the state stands at 67.41%. West Godavari district has the highest literacy rate of 74.6% and Vizianagaram district has the least with 58.9%.

Andhra Pradesh ranks tenth of all Indian States in the Human Development Index scores[53] with a score of 0.416. The National Council of Applied Economic Research district analysis in 2001 reveals that Krishna, West Godavari and Chittoor are the three districts in rural AP with the highest Human Development Index scores in ascending order.

Languages

The official language of Andhra Pradesh is Telugu. The Minister of Tourism and Culture has issued a declaration of the Telugu language as a Classical Language. Other languages often spoken in the state include Tamil, Kannada and Odia.

Religions

According to the 2011 census, the Andhra Pradesh state's population (before the state's bifurcation) was around 91.86% Hindu with a Muslim minority of 5.32% along with smaller numbers of Christians, Jains, Sikhs, and Buddhists.

Hinduism

Andhra Pradesh is home to Shankaracharya of Pushpagiri Peetham. Other Hindu saints include Sadasiva Brahmendra, Bhaktha Kannappa, Yogi Vemana, Yogi Sri Potuluri Virabrahmendra Swami, who was born in the Vishwabrahmin (goldsmith) caste, Satya Saibaba and many others. Andhra Pradesh has several Hindu shrines. Most important and richest of them is Tirupati Tirumala Devasthanams (TTD).

Mahayana-Buddhism

Buddhism spread to Andhra Pradesh early in its history. The Krishna River valley was "a site of extraordinary Buddhist activity for almost a thousand years. The ancient Buddhist sites in the lower Krishna Valley, including Amaravati, Nagarjunakonda and Jaggayyapeta "can be traced to at least the third century BCE, if not earlier.

The region played a central role in the development of Mahayana-buddhism, alongside with the Magadha-erea in northeastern India. A.K. Warder holds that "the Mahāyāna originated in the south of India and almost certainly in the Andhra country. According to Xing, "Several scholars have suggested that the Prajnaparamita probably developed among the Mahasamghikas in Southern India probably in the Andhra country, on the Krishna River. The Prajnaparamita Sutras belong to the earliest Mahayana Sutras.

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Administrative divisions

The state is divided into two regions viz., Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema. It has a total of 13 districts, with nine in Coastal Andhra and four in Rayalaseema. These 13 districts are further divided into 49 revenue divisions and they are in turn divided into 664 mandals.Chittoor district has the most number of mandals with 66 and Srikakulam district has the least with 37. There are as many as 7 revenue divisions in East Godavari district and only 2 in Vizianagaram district.

The districts in the state are Anantapur, Chittoor, East Godavari, Guntur, Kadapa, Krishna, Kurnool, Prakasam, Nellore, Srikakulam,Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram and West Godavari.

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Government and Politics

Legislative Assembly of Andhra Pradesh is the lower house of the state and legislative council of andhra pradesh is the upper house. with 58 members. In the Parliament of India, Andhra Pradesh has 11 seats in the Rajya Sabha, and 25 seats in the Lok Sabha. There are a total of 175 Assembly constituencies in the state. East Godavari district has the most number of constituencies with 19 and Vizianagaram district has the least with 9 assembly seats. Whereas, the legislative council of the state has 58 seats, which is one-third of total assembly seats.

Until 1962, the CPI, along with socialist parties namely Praja Socialist Party and Krishi Lok Party played an important role in the 1950s. In the 1967 state assembly elections, all socialist parties were eliminated and CPI lost opposition party status. The first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh was Neelam Sanjiva Reddy who later served as President of India.

In 1983, the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) won the state elections and N.T. Rama Rao became the chief minister of the state for the first time. This broke the long time single party monopoly enjoyed by the INC from 1956 until 1982. Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao is the founder of Telugu Desam party and served as the first chief minister from the party. The 1989 elections ended the rule of NTR, with the INC party returning to power with Marri Chenna Reddy at the helm. He was replaced by Janardhan Reddy in 1990, who was replaced by Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy in 1992.

N. Chandrababu Naidu held the record for the longest serving chief minister (1995 to 2004). In 1994, Andhra Pradesh gave a mandate to the Telugu Desam Party again, and NTR became the chief minister again. Nara Chandrababu Naidu, the son-in-law of NTR, came to power with the backing of a majority of the MLAs. The Telugu Desam Party won both the assembly and Lok Sabha election in 1999 under the leadership of Chandrababu Naidu.

In the ensuing elections the party lost power to a resurgent INC and its allies and Y. S. Raja sekhar Reddy became the Chief Minister. Y. S. Raja sekhar Reddy became Chief Minister again by fending off the Praja Rajyam Party and a major alliance of TDP, TRS, CPI andCPM. He died on 2 September 2009 in a helicopter crash. Konijeti Rosaiah, former state finance minister, became the Chief Minister on 3 September 2009, who resigned on 24 November 2010 on the grounds of increased work pressure. Nallari Kiran Kumar Reddy was sworn in as the new Chief Minister, who was also the last Chief Minister of the united Andhra Pradesh. He resigned after the announcement of the state bifurcation. President's rule was imposed and the state assembly was dissolved.

In what would be the last elections held in the unified state, Telugu Desam Party got a mandate in their favor in the residuary (new) state. Nara Chandrababu Naidu, the chief of Telugu Desam Party became Chief Minister on 8 June 2014, for the new state of Andhra Pradesh.

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Culture

The early dynasties which ruled this region had their influence on the culture of the state. The state is rich in its culture in terms of religious worships, literature, dance, music, arts and architecture, spicy cuisine. Some of the notable cultural aspects include paintings of Bapu, Annamayya's songs, famous Kuchipudi dance of the state, the harvest festival Sankranti and many more fairs as well.

Arts, crafts and artifacts

The village of Durgi is known for stone craft, producing carvings of idols in soft stone that must be exhibited in the shade because they are prone to weathering. Kalamkari is an ancient textile art form dating back to the Indus Valley Civilisation and "Srikalahasti" is famous for this art. Andhra Pradesh is famous for doll making. Dolls are made from wood, mud, dry grass, and lightweight metal alloys. Tirupati is famous for redwood carvings.Kondapalli is famous for wood toys with rich colors. The village of Etikoppaka, located in Visakhapatnam district, produces lacquered toys.

The state has many museums, which features a varied collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery and inscriptions, and religious artifacts such as the archaeological museum at Amaravati with features relics of nearby ancient sites, Visakha Museum in Visakhapatnam displays the history of the pre-Independence, and the Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada with large a good collection of artifacts.

Literature

Nannayya, Tikkana, and Yerrapragada form the trinity who translated the great Sanskrit epic Mahabharata into Telugu language.

Nannayya (c. eleventh century AD) was the earliest known poet and translator. He wrote the first treatise on Telugu grammar, called "Andhra Shabda Chintamani" in Sanskrit. There was no grammatical work in Telugu prior to that. Pothana is the poet who composed the classic Srimad Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatam, authored by Veda Vyasa in Sanskrit. The Telugu poet Vemana, a native of Kadapa, is notable for his philosophical poems. The Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya wrote Amuktamalyada.

Telugu literature after Kandukuri Veeresalingam (1848–1919) is termed as Adhunika Sahityam (Modern literature). He is known as Gadya Tikkana and was the author of Telugu social novel, Satyavati Charitam. Jnanpith Award winners include Sri Viswanatha Satya Narayana . The Andhra Pradesh native and revolutionary poet Sri Sri brought new forms of expressionism into Telugu literature.

Other modern writers include Gunturu Seshendra Sarma (second Nobel prize nominee in literature after Rabindranath Tagore),Puttaparthi Narayanacharyulu who wrote the books Sivatandavam and Panduranga Mahatyam. Srirangam Sreenivasarao, Gurram Jashuva, Chinnayasuri, Viswanatha Satyanarayana are also notable writers.

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Art forms and festivals
Dance :

Classical dance in Andhra can be performed by both men and women; women tend to learn it more often.Kuchipudi is the state's best-known classical dance form. The various classical dance forms (Śastriya Nrutyam) such as Kuchipudi, Andhra Natyam, Bhamakalapam, Veeranatyam and folk dances(Janapada Nrutyam) forms such as Butta bommalu, Tappeta Gullu, Lambadi, Dhimsa, and Chindu exists in Andhra Pradesh.

Jayapa Senani was the first person to write about the dances prevalent in Andhra Pradesh. Both Desi and Margi forms of dances are included in his Sanskrit treatise Nrutya Ratnavali.

Music :

Many composers of Carnatic music like Annamacharya, Tyagaraja, Kshetrayya, and Bhadrachala Ramadas were of Telugu descent. Modern Carnatic music composers like Ghantasala and M. Balamuralikrishna are also of Telugu descent. The Telugu film industry hosts many music composers and playback singers such as S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, P. Susheela, S. Janaki, P B Srinivas. Folk songs are popular in the many rural areas of the state. Forms such as the Burra katha and Poli are still performed today.

Harikatha :

Harikathaa Kalakshepam (or Harikatha) involves the narration of a story, intermingled with various songs relating to the story. Harikatha was originated in Andhra. Harikatha Kalakshepam is most prevalent in Andhra Pradesh even now along with Burra katha. Haridasusgoing round villages singing devotional songs is an age-old tradition during Dhanurmaasam preceding Sankranti festival. Ajjada Adibhatla Narayana Dasu with his Kavyas and Prabandhas has made Harikatha a special art form.

Burra katha :

Burra katha is a oral storytelling technique in the Katha tradition, performed in villages of Telangana and coastal Andhra Pradesh region. The troupe consists of one main performer and two co-performers. It is a narrative entertainment that consists of prayers, solo drama, dance, songs, poems and jokes. The topic will be either a Hindu mythological story or a contemporary social issue.

Festivals :

Ugadi is celebrated as the Telugu New Year. People listen to Panchanga recitals by Pundits on the day of Ugadi. This process is called as Panchanga Shravanam which is an important aspect of the festival. Makara Sankranti is also a famous harvest festival which is celebrated across the state. Just like in other parts of the country, many other festivals include – Dasara, Vinayaka Chaviti, Deepavali,Vasantotsavam, Maha Shivaratri, Attla Taddi etc. Muslim festivals include Bakrid, Ramadan and Christians celebrate Christmas and Easter.

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Cuisine

Cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is famous for the rich seasoning and lots of variety. Rice is the staple and is used in a wide variety of dishes. Typical meal includes rice, pappu (dal), vegetable curry, relishes, pickles, chutneys and curd. A lot of spices are produced in the region and hence the cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is considered spiciest of all. Tamarind andred chillies are the distinct flavor of local cuisine.

Pickles and chutneys (sauces) are made from chilli, ginger, coconut and other vegetables liketomato, brinjals, gongura are served with meals. Aavakaaya is probably the best known of the pickles. Roselle leaves (gongura), termed as Andhra bhakshyam (or food of Andhra).Rayalaseema region too had its own variety which includes jonna (jowar), ragi roti with ragisangati, usually served with spinach.

The coastal region of the state has abundant seafood supply. The variety of fish curry recipes is famous. It is rich and aromatic, with a liberal use of exotic spices and ghee (clarified butter). Lamb, chicken are also the most widely used meats in the non-vegetarian dishes.

Sweets made up of milk are widely eaten. Payasam is one of them made with milk, rice or vermicelli pudding served both warm and cold.Pootharekulu, bobbattlu, mamidi tandra, kaja, ariselu (rice based vada using jaggery) etc., are famous sweets.

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Economy

Andhra Pradesh has a very diverse geography which led to a very diverse economy. As many as 9 of the 13 districts have sea coast along the Bay of Bengal, which has created manufacturing and export centric industry. The fertile river plains in the delta regions of major peninsular rivers of Godavari and Krishna are rich with agriculture-based industries and the mineral deposits found in the districts of Rayalaseema, Eastern Ghats and neighbouring states has led to large-scale ore exports.

The gross state domestic product (GSDP) of Andhra Pradesh was ₹2359.3 billion (US$36 billion) in 2012–13. The domestic product of agriculture sector accounts for ₹545.99 billion(US$8.2 billion) and Industrial sector for ₹507.45 billion (US$7.7 billion). The service sector of the state accounts more percentage of the GSDP with a total of ₹1305.87 billion (US$20 billion).[7] In the 2010 list by Forbes magazine, there were several from Andhra Pradesh among the top 100 richest Indians.

Besides rice, farmers also grow wheat, jowar, bajra, maize, minor millet, coarse grain, many varieties of pulses, oil seeds, sugarcane, cotton, chili pepper, mango nuts and tobacco. Crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts are popular. There are many multi-state irrigation projects under development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam.

Livestock and poultry is also another profitable business, which involves rearing cattle in enclosed areas for commercial purposes. The state is also a largest producer of eggs in the country and hence, it is nicknamed as "Egg Bowl of Asia".

Fisheries contribute 10% of total fish and over 70% of the shrimp production of India. The geographical location of the state allows marine fishing as well as inland fish production. The most exported marine exports include Vannamei shrimp and are expected to cross $1 billion in 2013-14.

Industrial sector :

The industrial sector of the state include some of the key sectors like Pharma, Automobile,Textiles etc. Sricity located in Nellore district is an integrated business city which is home to many renowned firms like PepsiCo, Isuzu Motors, Cadbury India, Kellogg's, Colgate-Palmolive, Kobelcoetc. The PepsiCo firm has its largest plant in India at Sri City.

The state is also emerging in information technology and biotechnology. The IT/ITES revenues of the Visakhapatnam alone is at ₹14.45 billion (US$220 million) in 2012–13. The development of IT in Tier-II and Tier-III cities like Vijayawada, Kakinada and Tirupati are also improving. In the fiscal year 2012–13, Vijayawada's IT/ITES revenues were ₹1152.6 million (US$17 million) crore whileTirupati with ₹693 million (US$10 million) and Kakinada with ₹615.4 million (US$9.3 million).Other include.

Resources :

Andhra Pradesh is one of the storehouses of mineral resources in India. Andhra Pradesh with varied geological formations, contain rich and variety of industrial minerals and building stones.

Andhra Pradesh is listed top in the deposit and production of mica in India. Minerals found in the state include limestone, reserves of oil and natural gas, manganese, asbestos, iron ore, ball clay, fire clay, gold diamonds, graphite, dolomite, quartz, tungsten, steatite, feldspar, silica sand. It has about one third of India's limestone reserves and is known for large exclusive deposits of barytes and galaxy granite in the international market.

Mining is identified as one of the growth engines for the overall development of industry and infrastructure. The Tummalapalle Uranium mine in Andhra has confirmed 49,000 tonnes of ore and there are indications that it could hold reserves totaling three times its current size. 700 million tonnes of metal grade Bauxite deposits in close proximity to Visakhapatnam Port.

Reliance Industries Limited struck nine trillion cubic feet of gas reserves in the Krishna Godavari Basin, 150 km (93 mi) off the Andhra Pradesh coast near Kakinada. Discovery of large quantity of natural gas in KG Basin is expected to provide rapid economic growth.

Power plants :

There are both thermal and hydel power plants. Natural gas, one of the cheapest sources in power generation is in abundance. APGENCO is the power generating organization of Andhra Pradesh. Thermal power plants with total capacity of 5610 MW are situated in the state which includes Dr Narla Tata Rao Thermal Power Station (1760 MW), Rayalaseema Thermal Power Station (1050 MW), Sri Damodaram Sanjeevaiah Thermal Power Station (800 MW) are of APGENCO, Simhadri Super Thermal Power Plant (2000 MW) of NTPC, and the Hydel power plants are having a capacity of 3693.20 MW. There are also non−conventional power generation plants contributing a small portion to the power generation in the state.

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Transportation

The state is well connected to other states through road and rail networks. It is also connected to other countries by means of airways and seaports as well. With a long seacoast along the Bay of Bengal, it also has many ports for sea trade. The state has one of the largest railway junctions at Vijayawada and one of the largest seaports at Visakhapatnam.

Roads :

Roads in Andhra Pradesh consist of National Highways and state highways with district roads as well. NH 5, with a highway network of around 1,000 km (620 mi) in the state, is a part of Golden Quadrilateral Project undertaken by National Highways Development Project. It also forms part of AH 45 which comes under the Asian Highway Network.

The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation(APSRTC) is the major public bus transport owned by the state government which runs thousands of buses connecting different parts of the state. Pandit Nehru Bus Station (PNBS) in Vijayawada is one of the largest bus terminals in Asia.

Railways :

Andhra Pradesh has a railway network of 5,046 km (3,135 mi) and have played a significant role in boosting the economy of the state alongside developing the industrial and the tourism sectors. One of the highest broad gauge tracks in the world is in Eastern Ghats route that runs from Visakhapatnam to Anantagiri. Most of Andhra Pradesh falls under with Guntur, Vijayawada ,Guntakal (South Central Railway zone and Waltair (East Coast Railway zone) divisions. This serves the north coastal districts.

Waltair Railway Division under ECoR zone, is fourth largest revenue earning division in India. Vijayawada railway station is the highest grosser in the SCR zone and one of busiest railway junctions in India.

Airports :

Visakhapatnam Airport, is the only airport in the state with international connectivity. The state has five domestic airports, Vijayawada Airport at Gannavaram, Rajahmundry Airport at Madhurapudi, Tirupati Airport at Renigunta, Cuddapah Airport and a privately owned, public use airport at Puttaparthi. There are also 16 small air strips located in the state.

Sea ports :

Andhra Pradesh has one of the country's largest port at Visakhapatnam in terms of (cargo handling).The other famous ports are Krishnapatnam Port (Nellore), Gangavaram Port and Kakinada Port. Gangavaram Port is a deep seaport which can accommodate ocean liners up to 200,000–250,000 DWT. There are 14 notified non-major ports at Bheemunipatnam, S.Yanam, Machilipatnam, Nizampatnam, Vadarevu etc.

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Tourism

Andhra Pradesh is promoted by its tourism department, APTDC as the Koh-i-Noor of India.

Beaches :

The seacoast of the state extends along the Bay of Bengal from Srikakulam to Nellore district. The coastline has many beaches, namely Ramakrishna, Rushikonda, Bheemli,Suryalanka, Krishnapatnam, Vodarevu beach, Uppada beaches etc.The state tourism board APTDC promotes tourism in the state.

Caves :

Borra Caves in the Ananthagiri Hills of the Eastern Ghats, near Vishakapatnam are famous for million-year-old stalactite and stalagmite formations. Belum Caves in Kurnool district are the second largest natural caves of 3.229 km (2.006 mi) in length on the Indian subcontinent.

Valleys and Hills :

Araku Valley is the famous hill station in Visakhapatnam district with thick forests, coffee plantations and waterfalls. Horsley Hills is a summer hill resort in the Chittoor district, situated at an elevation of 1,265 metres (4,150 ft), has natural flora and fauna. Papi Hills in East Godavari district is famous for its scenic beauty of the location in the river Godavari with.

Ecotourism :

The state has rich forests, diverse flora & fauna that provide ample scope for promoting ecotourism. The state has many Sanctuaries, National Parks, Zoological Parks such as Coringa,Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve, Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary, Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park, Indira Gandhi Zoological Park etc. Atapaka Bird Sanctuary and Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary attracts many migratory birds.

Religious destinations :

Apart from these, the state is home to many pilgrim destinations. It has many temples and shrines, mosques, and churches. Some famous temples, mosques, Buddhist shrines and churches of religious importance which are often visited by many tourists include Tirumala Temple, Simhachalam Temple in Visakhapatnam District, Dwaraka Tirumala in West Godavari District, Srisailam temple, Kanaka Durga Temple of Vijayawada, Kotappakonda in Narasaraopet,Srikalahasti temple, Shahi jamia masjid in Adoni, Gunadala Church in Vijayawada, Buddhist centres at Amaravati, Nagarjuna Konda etc., and many more as well.

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MP (Lok Sabha)
SNo Name of The Member Party Constituency
01 KOTHAPALLI GEETHA Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party Aruku
02 Shri. RAMMOHAN NAIDU KINJARAPU Telugu Desam Srikakulam
03 Shri. ASHOK GAJAPATHI RAJU PUSAPATI Telugu Desam Vizianagaram
04 Shri. KAMBHAMPATI HARI BABU Bharatiya Janata Party Visakhapatnam
05 Shri. MUTTAMSETTI SRINIVASA RAO (AVANTHI) Telugu Desam Anakapalli
06 Shri. THOTA NARASIMHAM Telugu Desam Kakinada
07 DR PANDULA RAVINDRA BABU Telugu Desam Amalapuram
08 Shri. MURALI MOHAN MAGANTI Telugu Desam Rajahmundry
09 Shri. GOKARAJU GANGA RAJU Bharatiya Janata Party Narsapuram
10 Shri. MAGANTI VENKATESWARA RAO (BABU) Telugu Desam Eluru
11 Shri. KONAKALLA NARAYANA RAO Telugu Desam Machilipatnam
12 Shri. KESINENI SRINIVAS Telugu Desam Vijayawada
13 Shri. JAYADEV GALLA Telugu Desam Guntur
14 Shri. SAMBASIVA RAO RAYAPATI Telugu Desam Narasaraopet
15 Shri. MALYADRI SRIRAM Telugu Desam Bapatla
16 Shri. Y.V.SUBBA REDDY Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party Ongole
17 Shri. S.P.Y REDDY Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party Nandyal
18 BUTTA RENUKA Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party Kurnool
19 Shri. J.C. DIVAKAR REDDI Telugu Desam Anantapur
20 Shri. KRISTAPPA NIMMALA Telugu Desam Hindupur
21 Shri. Y.S. AVINASH REDDY Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party Kadapa
22 Shri. MEKAPATI RAJAMOHAN REDDY Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party Nellore
23 Shri. VARAPRASAD RAO VELAGAPALLI Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party Tirupati
24 Shri. P.V.MIDHUN REDDY Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party Rajampet
25 Shri. NARAMALLI SIVAPRASAD Telugu Desam Chittoor
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Council of Ministers
S.No Name of The Minister Sri/Smt/Dr Portfolio Address (@Secretariat) Telephone No Constituency Photo
01 Sri. Nara Chandrababu Naidu Chief Minister,General Administration Department, Law &
Justice, Energy, Infrastructure, Investment,
Industries & Commerce, Public Enterprises,
Cinematography, Tourism & All other
Portfolios not allocated.
Email-Id:
cm@ap.gov.in
Kuppam Nara Chandra Babu Naidu
02 Sri K.E.Krishna Murthy Deputy Chief Minister,Revenue, Stamps & Registration Room No.201,
204 J-Block
Email-Id:
dycm_rev@ap.gov.in
23454715,
23451488
Ext:2566
Pattikonda
03 Sri N.Chinarajappa Deputy Chief Minister,Home, Disaster Management Room No.201,
South-H Block
Email-Id: dycm&home@ap.gov.in
23455998,
23450878,
Ext: 2312
Peddapuram
04 Sri Yanamala Ramakrishnudu Finance & Planning, Commercial Taxes,
Legislative Affairs
Room No.301,
South-H Block
Email-Id:
min_fin@ap.gov.in
23453208,
23457367
Ext: 2836
MLC
05 Sri CH.Ayyannapatrudu Panchayat Raj, Rural Water Supply, NREGS Room No.217,
South-H Block
Email-Id:
minpr@ap.gov.in
23450451,
23456299,
Ext:2381
Narsipatnam
06 Sri B.Gopala Krishna Reddy Environment & Forests, Science & Technology,
Cooperation
Room no:403,
J-Block
Email-Id:
min_frst@ap.gov.in
23456703,
Ext:2400
Srikalahasti
07 Sri Devineni Uma Maheswara Rao Irrigation, Command Area Development &
Water Resources Management
Room No.801,
J-Block
Email-Id: min_irrigation@ap.gov.in
23457687,
23453900,
Ext:2386
Mylavaram
08 Dr. P.Narayana Municipal Administration & Urban
Development, Urban Water Supply and Urban
Planning
Room no:205,
L- Block
Email-Id:
min_maud@ap.gov.in
23450855,
23453230,
Ext:2744
-
09 Smt.Paritala Sunithamma Price Monitoring, Consumer Affairs, Food &
Civil Supplies
Room No.704,
J-Block
Email-Id:
min_fcs@ap.gov.in
23451196,
23450399,
Ext:2485
Raptadu
10 Sri Prathipati Pulla Rao Agriculture, Agri-Processing, Marketing &
warehousing, Animal Husbandry, Dairy
Development and Fisheries
Room no: 811,
J-Block
Email-Id:
min_agri@ap.gov.in
23453425,
23457113,
Ext:2552
Chilakaluripet
11 Sri Kamineni Srinivas Health and Medical Education Room no: 301,
J-Block
Email-Id:
min_mh@ap.gov.in
23455976,
23451135,
Ext:2341
Kaikalur
12 Sri Ganta Srinivasa Rao Human Resources Development (Primary
Education, Secondary Education, Higher &
Technical Education)
Room No.310,
South-H Block
Email-Id:
min_hrd@ap.gov.in
23450188,
23221175
Ext:2837
Bhimili
13 Sri Palle Raghunatha Reddy Information & Public Relations, Information
Technology & Communications, Non-Resident
Indian empowerment & Relations, Telugu
Language & Culture, Minority Welfare &
Empowerment
Room No.315,
South-H Block
Email-Id :
min_itc@ap.gov.in
23450371,
23450348,
Ext:2571
Puttaparthi
14 Smt. Peethala Sujatha Women Empowerment, Child Welfare and
Disabled & Senior Citizens Welfare, Mines &
Geology
Room No.601,
J-Block
23450579,
23454667,
Ext:2579
Chintalapudi (SC)
15 Sri Atchannaidu Kinjarapu Labour & Employment, Factories, Youth &
Sports, Skill Development and
Entrepreneurship
Room No.501,
J-Block
Email-Id:
min_left@ap.gov.in
23454168,
23450541,
23450899,
Ext:2435
Tekkali
16 Sri Raghava Rao Sidda Transport, Roads and Buildings Room no: 121,
L-Block
Email-Id: min_transport@ap.gov.in
23450153,
23454238,
Ext:2901
Darsi
17 Smt. Kimidi Mrunalini Rural Development, Housing, Sanitation Room no: 207,
South H Block
Email-Id:
min_hsg@ap.gov.in
23450347,
23450723,
Ext:2419
Cheepurupalle
18 Sri Kollu ravindra BC Welfare & Empowerment, Handlooms &
Excise
Room No.805,
J-Block
Email-Id: min_bchtex@ap.gov.in
23450515,
23453209,
Ext:2490
Machilipatnam
19 Sri Ravela Kishore Babu Social Welfare & Empowerment, Tribal
Welfare & Empowerment
Room no: 307 & 308,
South H-Block
Email-Id:
min_swtw@ap.gov.in
23450275,
23221352,
Ext:2722
Prathipadu (SC)
20 Sri Pydikondala Manikyala Rao Endowments Room no: 810,
J-Block
Email-Id: min_endowments@ap.gov.in
23450362,
23451064
Ext:2399
Tadepalligudem

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